As usual in ArcGIS, different tools can deliver similar results. In this post, a map has been generated to show how to [quickly] filter features according to their position with respect to other elements.
There are several proximity tools that can be used to calculate distances between features. Some examples are: Near, Generate Near Table, Buffer or Multiple Ring Buffer.
In the following map, the distances from the attractions managed by Historic Environment Scotland (HES) to the John Muir Way have been calculated by means of Near. After that, the buildings have been filtered by attribute (distance), showing those in a range of [at most] 5 kms along this route.
Applying machine learning techniques to aerial photography.
The following map illustrates the use of agricultural land in the surroundings of the Parque Natural de las Lagunas de Ruidera, in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain.
Percentage of population with access to improved water source.
Some tests with ArcGIS, georeferencing the two wind farms currently working in Campo de Montiel (Ciudad Real, Spain).
All the platforms have 2MW generators, 41 m blades and towers are 67 meters high.